# The mcx matrix calculator

**mcx** is a stack-based matrix calculator. Two-dimensional matrices are read from disk files (or generated by other constructs) and pushed onto a stack. Unary operations (such as inversion or scaling by a constant) manipulate the top array on the stack. Binary operations (such as addition) operate on the top two elements on the stack.

**mcx** does not manipulate symbolic matrices, but will in many places convert expressions from user-defined and other internally generated variables, such as the number of rows or columns of an array.

See Instruction Summary for a listing of all **mcx** instructions.

### Table of Contents

- Table of Contents
- Preliminaries
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Examples
- 3.
**mcx**manual - Repeated Iteration of Command Line Arguments
- Instruction summary
- Other resources

### Preliminaries

The calculator manipulates array elements on the stack. The most recent, or top-level array is called *s*_{0}; arrays deeper in the stack are called *s*_{1}, *s*_{2}, &hellip.

Arrays are normally read from disk files, which have the standard Questaal format, and a few other formats. Data parsed in files makes use of the programming language capabilities of the preprocessor.

**mcx** is required and is assumed to be in your path. This manual is written for version 1.062. To see what version you are using, do:

```
$ mcx --version
```

See Instruction Summary.

### 1. Introduction

**mcx** is a matrix extension of an ordinary calculator. It is mainly designed to work with 2D arrays; it operates on numerical arrays. It is command-line driven and can efficiently manipulate arrays for analysis. Some Questaal testing scripts make use of it to analyze whether a test passes a certain criterion.

Usually arrays are read from disk files in ASCII format, though **mcx** can read binary files, and has limited ability to create arrays from command-line arguments (see for example the **–array** and **-1** constructs). **mcx** is stack-based: each time you read an array from a file (or create a new array by some other means) it is pushed onto the stack. Arrays are called *s*_{0}, *s*_{1}, *s*_{2}, ….

You read an array from disk by naming the file in a command-line argument, e.g. `mcx h`

attempts to read an array from file *h*. The contents are parsed and if the reading is successful, pushed on the stack, becoming array *s*_{0}. The old *s*_{0} becomes *s*_{1}, the old *s*_{1} becomes *s*_{2}, etc. The ASCII format of the file is quite flexible; you can specify the number of rows *nr* and number of columns *nc* in a number of ways:

You can specify the number of columns on the command line, with

**−nc=#**; similarly with the number of rows (**−nr=#**).**−nc=#**; this switch is used in Example 2.2.You can include a directive at the start of the file, before any data is read.

**mcx**passes the input through a file preprocessor first; in addition a directive specifying some combination*nr*and*nc*, e.g.`% rows #1 cols #2`

supplies the needed information to

**mcx**.In the absence of an explicit specification,

**mcx**will infer*nc*by counting how many numbers (more generally expressions) are on the first line.

If *nc* is obtained somehow but not *nr*, **mcx** determines it by counting the number of expressions in the entire file and dividing by *nc*.

*Note:* : if the **−nc=#** or **−nr=#** switches are not used, **mcx** determines them from the standard Questaal algorithm for reading 2D arrays, described in more detail here.

#### 1.1 Named arrays

You can copy *s*_{0} to a permanent array with a name. It remains fixed as the stack varies. To push it onto the stack, refer to by using the array name a command-line argument. If the name is found among the list of permanent arrays, it will push the internally named array onto the stack, rather than try to read a file of that name.

For example suppose files *h* and *s* contain arrays. The command

```
mcx h -a h s -a s s h -show
```

does the following:

- Loads the contents of file
*h*onto the stack. It becomes*s*_{0}. - Copies
*s*_{0}to an internal array named**h**and pops*s*_{0}off the stack. - Loads the contents of file
*s*onto the stack. It becomes*s*_{0}. - Copies
*s*_{0}to an internal array named**s**and pops it off the stack. - Pushes the contents of internal array
**s**onto the stack. - Pushes the contents of internal array
**h**onto the stack. - Lists permanent and stack arrays (there are two of each), and their attributes.

See Instruction Summary.

### 2. Examples

This section develops a few examples to provide an intuitive feel for how **mcx** works and to illustrate some features.

A systematic description of **mcx**’s features and arguments is given in Section 3.

Cut and paste the following data into array into file *mat1*

```
1.1 2.2
3.3 4.4
```

and this data into file ** mat2**.

```
5 6
7 8
```

#### Example 2.1. Add *mat1* to *mat2*

*mat1*

*mat2*

If you do the following:

`mcx mat1 mat2 -+`

you should see

```
% rows 2 cols 2 real
6.100000 8.200000
10.300000 12.400000
```

Any argument that begins with **“−“** is a switch or an operator (as distinct from data). The string following **“−“** names the operator.

Thus:

**mat1**: reads filefrom disk and pushes it onto the stack; call it*mat1**s*_{0}.**mat2**: reads fileand pushes it onto the stack so*mat2**s*_{0}→*s*_{1}and the contents of→*mat2**s*_{0}.**−+**: is the binary operation “add.” If*s*_{0}and*s*_{1}exist, they are summed and popped off the stack. Their sum is pushed onto top-level array*s*_{0}.

*Note:* if operations occur before arrays are given, they are push on an operations stack and execute when arrays become available. The following commands accomplish the same thing

```
$ mcx -+ mat1 mat2
$ mcx mat1 -+ mat2
$ mcx mat1 mat2 -+
```

Use **−show** to see the stack. Try this

`mcx -f2f8.1 mat1 mat2 -show -+`

`

You should get

```
# 0 named arrays, 2 on stack; pending 0 unops 0 bops (vsn 1.057)
# stack nr nc cast
# 2 2 2 real
# 1 2 2 real
% rows 2 cols 2 real
6.1 8.2
10.3 12.4
```

**−show** prints out what arrays are in the calculator; the addition is subsequently performed and the result printed.

**“−f…“** is a formatting statement; **2f8.1** follows the fortran convention for formatting real numbers.

#### Example 2.2 Standard input and standard output

After all the command-line arguments are parsed, usually **mcx** prints the top-level array *s*_{0}, and exits silently.

However,

If

*s*_{0}is not present,**mcx**waits for you to enter an array from standard input.

For example try`$ mcx -f2f8.1 $ 1 2 $ 3 $ 4 <ctrl-D>`

**mcx**should print out`% rows 2 cols 2 real 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0`

If the last command is

**−show**,**mcx**just prints out information about named arrays and the stack and exits (even if the stack has no arrays). Thus the command

`mcx -f2f8.1 mat1 mat2 -show -+ -show`

does the same as it did in Example 2.1 but prints out stack contents a second time, instead of printing*s*_{0}.

You can also tell **mcx** to read the next array from standard input by using a full stop (**“ . “**) in lieu of file name. Thus

`echo 1 -2 3 -4 | mcx .`

pushes a 1×4 array onto *s*_{0}, while

`echo 1 -2 3 -4 | mcx -nc=2 . mat2 -+`

pushes a 2×2 array onto *s*_{0}, then pushes ** mat2**, and adds the two so that a single array remains on the stack.

**−nc=2**tells

**mcx**to treat the line from

**as an array with 2 columns.**

*stdin*#### Example 2.3 Manipulations of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an array

This example finds the eigenvalues *e* and eigenvectors *z* of ** mat2**, and shows that

*mat2 z = z e*.

First try

`mcx mat2 -evl`

You should see a 2×1 complex array

```
% rows 2 cols 1 complex
-0.152067
13.152067
0.000000
0.000000
```

The eigenvalues are complex because the matrix is not hermitian. The imaginary part follows the real part; this is how **mcx** displays and reads complex arrays in ASCII format.

You can force ** mat2** to be hermitian (symmetric since

**is real) with**

*mat2***−herm**. Now do

`mcx mat2 -herm -a h h -evl h -evc -ap z -tog -v2dia -x h z -x --`

These instructions do the following:

**mat2**: reads fileand pushes it onto*mat2**s*_{0}.**−herm**: symmetrizes*s*_{0}.**−a h**: copies*s*_{0}to a named array*h*and pops it from the stack. The stack is now empty.**h −evl**: pushes*h*onto*s*_{0}and replaces*s*_{0}with its eigenvalues. Because*h*is hermitian,*s*_{0}is real.**h −evc**: pushes*h*onto the stack and replaces*s*_{0}with its eigenvectors. Now the stack has two arrays,*s*_{0}=*z*and*s*_{1}=*e*.**−ap z**: copies*s*_{0}to a named array*z*.**−tog**: toggles*s*_{0}and*s*_{1}, making*s*_{1}=*z*and*s*_{0}=*e*.**−v2dia**: Turns*s*_{0}(a vector or 2×1 array of eigenvalues) into a diagonal 2×2 array.**−x**: multiplies*s*_{1}×*s*_{0}. One array remains on the stack,*s*_{0}=*z × e*.**h z −x**: pushes*h*and*z*onto the stack and multiplies them. Now*s*_{0}=*h × z*, while*s*_{1}=*z × e***−−**: Adds*s*_{1}to −*s*_{0}.*s*_{1}and*s*_{1}are mathematically identical so the difference should be zero.

*Note:* this formula should still work even if *h* is not hermitian.

#### Example 2.4 Numerical integration, differentiation, and interpolation of a function

Integrate and differentiate the function , by tabulating it on a mesh and evaluating integrals and derivatives numerically. This example also uses the tabulated data to interpolate it to another mesh.

Copy the contents of the box below into file *dat*.

```
% const n=100 p=1 lam=2
% save
% macro iy(z) exp(-lam*z)*(-lam*z-1)/lam^2
% repeat i= 0:n
% var x=10*i/n
{x} {x^p*exp(-lam*x)}
% end
```

This creates 101 rows of *xy* pairs with *x* ranging between 0 and 10.

*Note:* : The number of points *n*+1, and also *p* and λ are declared in the file with the **const** preprocessor directive. You can override the values assigned there with command-line arguments, e.g. **−vp=#**. The **save** directive retains the variables declared in this file after it is read. The **macro** directive will be used for the indefinite integral, below.

##### Derivative

The derivative is readily found to be

Try some of the following commands

```
$ mcx -vp=2 dat -diff
$ mcx -vp=2 dat -diff -e3 x1 x2 'x1^(p-1)*(p-lam*x1)*exp(-lam*x1)'
$ mcx -vp=2 -f3f15.10 dat -diff:nord=5 -e3 x1 x2 'x1^(p-1)*(p-lam*x1)*exp(-lam*x1)' -e3 x1 x2 x2-x3
```

All of them differentiate the second column with respect to the first, using *p*=2.

- The first returns two columns with
*x*and*y*′. - The second returns three columns with
*x*,*y*′, and the analytic derivative of*y*′. - The third returns three columns (more decimals) with
*x*,*y*′, and the error in the numerical estimate for*y*′.

Unpacking the third command:

Argument | Function |

−vp=2 | Declares variable p and assigns the value 2. This overrides the assignment in dat. |

−f3f15.10 | Formats output (fortran format 3f15.10) |

dat | read s_{0} from dat. |

−diff:nord=5 | Replace column 2 with a numerical estimate for y′Use a 5-point polynomial to interpolate the data; estimate is derivative of polynomial interpolation |

−e3 x1 x2 ‘x1^(p−1)*(p−lam*x1)*exp(−lam*x1)’ | replace s_{0} with a three column array consisting of x, y′, and the analytic derivative of y′ |

−e3 x1 x2 x2−x3 | replace s_{0} with a three column array consisting of x, y′, and difference between the numerical and analytical y′ |

Some observations:

- The largest error appears for
*x*→0. The interpolation is less accurate when all the data lies on one side of the interpolating point. - The error improves when higher order polynomials (
**nord=#**) are used, or when the mesh is made finer (**−vn**=#). - If you use
*p*<1,*y*′ diverges at the origin. The numerical derivative cannot reproduce this.

##### Integral

*y* is small at *x*=10 if λ=−2, provided *p* is 3 or less; so we will use 10 in place of ∞.

Try some of the following commands

```
$ mcx -vp=1 dat -int 0 10
$ mcx -vp=2 dat -int 0 10
$ mcx -vp=3 dat -int 0 10
```

These commands calculate *I* between 0 and 10 for three values of *p*.

You should find that *I* is close to , i.e. 1/4, 1/4, and 3/8 for *p*=1,2,3. Some numerical errors appear in the 6^{th} digit. The integral is carried out by fitting the data to a polynomial of order **nord−1**, and integrating the polynomial. You can reduce the error by using a higher order than the default value of 4 for **nord**, viz

```
$ mcx -vp=3 dat -int:nord=6 0 10
```

Also for *p*>3 you should increase the upper bound beyond 10 since the integral from 10 to ∞ is on the order of 10^{−6}.

##### Indefinite Integral

As noted *I* must be evaluated between definite limits. However, you can make **mcx** simulate an indefinite integral by integrating over a range of upper bounds.

To compare with exact results, note that when *p*=1 the indefinite integral is

The **macro** in *dat* evaluates this integral.

Try the following:

```
$ mcx dat -int 0 0:2:.2 -e3 x1 x2 'iy(x1)-iy(0)'
```

This evaluates *I* for a lower bound of 0 and a uniform mesh of points for the upper bound between 0 and 2. In the third column the analytic integral is evaluated from the macro **iy** at the upper and lower bounds.

You should that the numerical and analytic integrals agree to about 6 decimal places:

```
% rows 11 cols 3 real
0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
0.200000 0.015387 0.015388
0.400000 0.047801 0.047802
0.600000 0.084343 0.084343
0.800000 0.118767 0.118767
1.000000 0.148498 0.148499
1.200000 0.172890 0.172890
1.400000 0.192230 0.192230
1.600000 0.207200 0.207200
1.800000 0.218578 0.218578
2.000000 0.227105 0.227105
```

##### Interpolation

Interpolation proceeds much in the same was as integration; only interpolation has lower bound. Try

```
$ mcx -vp=2 dat -intrp .5:1:.05 -e3 x1 x2 'x1^p*exp(-lam*x1)' -e3 x1 x2 x2-x3
```

This returns the abscissa on a mesh twice finer than the original mesh. Every odd point is perfectly interpolated (they lie on the original mesh); the even points reflect the error of the interpolation.

See Instruction Summary.

#### Example 2.5 Rotation matrices

… not yet written (sorry!)

### 3. **mcx** manual

**mcx** is a stack-based, command-line driven calculator for matrices. Matrices reside on the stack, ordered as *s*_{0}, *s*_{1}, … . There are unary operators that operate on the top-level element *s*_{0}, replacing it with some transformation, and binary operators that operate on *s*_{1} and *s*_{0} replacing both of them with the result of some operation, e.g. *s*_{1} × *s*_{0}.

Usage:

mcx [−switches]data-file-ops …

Arguments that do not begin with **“−“** or **”[“** must be files, stored in the form of a 2D array. For ASCII files, data is read using the standard Questaal format which features programming language capabilities.

Any argument that begins with **“−“** is a switch, a unary operator, or a binary operator.

Any argument that begins with **”[“** is a declaration of a command-line looping construct where command arguments between **”[“** and **”]”** are iterated over, as described below.

When a file is read, its contents (together with the number of rows *nr* and columns *nc*) is pushed onto the stack and becomes the top-level stack element *s*_{0}. Elements already existing on the stack get pushed down one level. If there are *n* such elements, *s*_{i-1} → *s _{i}* for

*i*=

*n*,

*n*−1, …, and the new element becomes

*s*

_{0}.

Data is normally read from a file; however if *data-file* is a full stop (“ **.** ”), data is read from standard input in lieu of a file. (It can occur only once). See Example 2.2.

#### Switches

These are switches that modify variables and describe or control formatting of data files that are read and written.

**−nc=# (nr=#)**

Stipulate that next matrix read has # columns (rows). See Example 2.2 for an illustration.**−vvar=#**

define variable**−vvar**assign value to**#**. This is the standard way Questaal programs assign variables from the command line. Since data files are parsed by the preprocessor, such variables may enter into preprocessor directives or as part of expressions in the data itself.**−show**

show data stack and any operations pending. See Example 2.1.**−w[l=string]***fname*| −bw[l=string]*fname*

write*s*_{0}to file*fname*.**−bw**writes to a binary file.**−wap**

(complex arrays only) write*s*_{0}as (amplitude,phase) rather than (Re, Im).**−a[***nr*=#|:*nc*=#] nam | −ap nam

assign*s*_{0}to**nam**, and pop*s*_{0}off the stack.**−ap nam**performs the assignment but does not pop*s*_{0}off the stack.**−av[***ir*,*ic*] var

assigns scalar variable**var**to element from*s*_{0}(*ir*,*ic*). If*ir*and*ic*are specified, the (1,1) element is used.**−r~tags**

tags are separated by**’~’**; you can use a different character instead. Tags are:~qr read with fortran read (fast, no algebra) ~s=# skips # records before reading ~open leaves file open after reading; thus if you read the file again it will read the next array ~br read from binary file, using first record to read *nr*and*nc*~spc load in sparse format ~br, *nr*,*nc*binary file has no first record; user supplies *nr*,*nc***−px[:nprec]**

write in row (column) compressed storage format, displaying only elements larger than a tolerance By default the tolerance is 10^{−8}. If**nprec**is supplied, the tolerance is 10^{−nprec}.**−pxc**

Not documented.

See Instruction Summary.

#### Unary operators

These operators act on the top level matrix, *s*_{0}, and replace it with the result of the unop.

Where *expr* appears in the switches below, algebraic variables declared from directives may be used; also you can use **x n** for the contents of the

*n*

^{th}column.

**−p:**

Pushes top array*s*_{0}onto stack, duplicating it.**−p+n (-p-n):**

Pushes nth array (from bottom) onto stack**−pop:**

Pops*s*_{0}from stack, shifting the other elements up one level.**−csum[:list]**

Sums the columns of*s*_{0}, replacing it with a matrix of one column.**−rsum[:list]**

Sums the rows of*s*_{0}, replacing it with a matrix of one row.**−s#:**

Scale*s*_{0}by # (may use -s#real,#imag)**−shft=#:**

Adds a constant # to*s*_{0}**−sort***expr*

Sorts rows*s*_{0}, ordering them by the result of*expr***−i | − iq:**

Inverts*s*_{0}**−1:***n*

Pushes unit matrix, dimension*n*, onto stack**−evl | −evc**

Replaces*s*_{0}by its eigenvalues (eigenvectors)**−t:**

Transposes*s*_{0}**−cc:**

Take complex conjugate of*s*_{0}**−herm:**Replaces*s*_{0}with its hermitian part**−real:**

Replaces*s*_{0}with its real part**−v2dia:**

If*s*_{0}is a vector, it is expanded into diagonal matrix.

If*s*_{0}is a square matrix, its diagonal elements are used to form a vector.**−split nam row-markers column-markers**

Splits*s*_{0}into subblocks.**row-markers**and**column-markers**. Both markers consist of standard Questaal integer lists, and delineate the first row (column) of a subblock, and also implicitly delineate the last row (column) of the prior subblock. Thus**1,6,20**comprises two subblocks, the first with range**[1,5]**, the other with range**[6,19]**.

For each*i*and*j*, where*i*and*j*are the*i*^{th}and*j*^{th}subblock, a permanent array called**nam**will be created. Thus*ij***-split**creates*n*_{1}×*n*_{2}new named arrays, with*n*_{1}and*n*_{2}being the number of row and column subblocks.

*Example:*suppose*myfile*contains 27 rows and 4 columns. Then

`mcx myfile -sub 1,27,1,4 -split x 1:nr+1:9 1,2,nc+1 -show`

creates 6 new arrays named**x11**,**x12**,**x21**,**x22**,**x31**,**x32**. All have 9 rows;**x11**,**x21**,**x31**have one column while**x12**,**x22**,**x32**have three columns.

*Note 1:*You can use**nr**and**nc**to refer the number of rows and columns, respectively.

*Note 2:*You can use**.**in lieu of an integer list for either**row-markers**or**column-markers**. It is equivalent to the list**1,nr+1**for the rows and**1,nc+1**for the columns.**−rep:n1,n2**

Concatenates replicas of*s*_{0}to create (*nr*×*n1*,*nc*×*n2*) array.**−roll:#1[,#2]**

Cyclically shifts rows (and columns, respectively) by**#1**(and**#2**) elements.**−pwr=#:**

Raises (col-1) matrix to a power**−tp [nc~]**\ Generates matrix from*list**list*. Elements inis a sequence of real numbers, in the form of standard Questaal syntax for integer lists.*list***−rot=***strn*

Create a 3×3 rotation matrix defined by elementary rotations in.*strn*

should take the standard Questaal syntax for rotations constructed from a product of elementary rotations about specified angles.*strn***−roteu**

Converts a rotation matrix resident on the stack to Euler angles (an inverse operation to**−rot=**). Examples:

`mcx -rot=x:pi/2`

pushes a new 3x3 array (rotation) on the stack while

`mcx -rot=x:pi/2 -roteu`

returns the Euler angles for that rotation**−ylm~l=***l*[~sh|~sh2][~spin|~spin+o|~spin+oonly]

Makes rotation matrix for real or spherical harmonics, spinors, or both, from top-level array, which must be a 3×3 rotation matrix. This instruction creates a square array of rank (*l*+1)^{2}, which rotate a vector of real harmonics , evaluated at a point**r**. (Alternatively, use**~sh**to make a matrix rotating true spherical harmonics , with*m*ordered (*-l*:*l*), or**~sh2**for the reverse ordering.)If spinors are included (

**~spin**),**mcx**creates 2×2 superarray with the (1:2,1:2) subblocks corresponding to spins ±1/2. For spinors only (**~spin**), each subblock of the superarray is a diagonal, constant matrix of rank (*l*+1)^{2}. When combined with orbital rotations (**~spin+o**) the superarry is a product of the spinor and orbital rotations.**−array[#1,#2] #,#,#,…**

Push onto the stack a new real array of dimension**(#1,#2)**. The second argument must consist of**#1**×**#2**expressions separated by commas. They specify elements

**(1,1), (1,2), … (1,#2), (2,1), (1,2), … (1,#2), … (#1,1), (#1,2), … (#1,#2)**.

*Example:*`mcx -f18f8.2 -array[2,3] 6,5,4,3,2,1`

creates a 2×3 array with the second row containing elements 3,2,1, respectively.**−sarray[#1,#2] | −sarrayr[#1,#2] | −sarrayc[#1,#2] | −sarrayz[#1,#2]**

Assemble a superarray of**#1**×**#2**arrays pre-existing on the stack. It is an error these stack arrays are not present.**−sarray[#1,#2]**: The top rows of the superarray are constructed from the first**#2**arrays on the stack; The bottom rows from the last**#2**arrays.**−sarrayz[#1,#2]**: reverses stack order, so the**(1,1)**and**(#1,#2)**elements of the superarray are copied respectively from from**s**and_{#1×#2}**s**._{0}**−sarrayc[#1,#2]**: reverses column order but not row order of stack.**−sarrayr[#1,#2]**: reverses row order but not column order of stack.

Constituents of each superblock row (e.g. the first row,

**s**,_{0}**s**, …,_{1}**s**) must have a fixed number of rows. Also each superblock row must combine to make the same number of columns._{#2−1}

See below for an example.

See Instruction Summary.

##### Row and column Unary Operators

These unops treat *s*_{0} as an array of **nr** rows and **nc** columns.

**−rowl***list*| −coll*list*

Creates a new array from a list of rows (columns) of*s*_{0}**−rowl:mirr | −coll:mirr**

Rearranges rows (columns) in reverse order**−rowl:pf=***fnam*| −coll:pf=*fnam*| −rowl:ipf=*fnam*| −coll:ipf=*fnam*

Same as −rowl (−coll) but*list*is read from permutation file*fnam*.**ipf**reverses the sense of the permutation.

*Example:*file*perm*contains 2 3 1 4. Then**−rowl:pf=perm**returns*s*_{0}with rows 2,3,1,4 permuted into 1,2,3,4**−rowl:ipf=perm**returns*s*_{0}w/ rows 3,1,2,4 permuted into 1,2,3,4

**−inc***expr*

Retains rows from*s*_{0}for which*expr*is nonzero.**−sub t,b,l,r | -sub t,l**

Extracts a subblock of*s*_{0}. In second form, bottom right corner = (*nr*,*nc*).**−subs:# t,b,l,r**

Scales a subblock of*s*_{0}by**#**.**−subv:# t,b,l,r**

Copies # to subblock of*s*_{0}.**−e#***expr1 expr2*…*expr*#

Create new matrix of**#**columns with values*expr1 expr2*…*expr*# .

Variables**x1**,**x2**, … can be used in the expressions. These variables refer to the elements of*s*_{0}in columns 1, 2, …, and change with each row.

This switch is used in Example 2.4.

*Note:*: at present this switch does not work for complex arrays.**−abs**

takes the absolute value of each element**−max[:i|g]**

puts the largest element in a given row into the first column.

Optional g returns max value of the entire array

Optional i returns index to max value.**−nint[#1]**

Replaces each element with nearest integer.

Optional #1: scale array by #1 before operation, and by 1/#1 after. Thus -nint:1000 rounds to nearest thousandth.

See Instruction Summary.

##### Unary Operators that treat data as discretized continuous functions of the first column

In these unops, column 1 (**x1**) is treated as an the independent variable.

Three of these unops fit data in other columns with a polynomial in **x1**. The polynomial is used to differentiate (**−diff**), integrate (**−int**), or interpolate (**−intrp**) data in the remaining columns. There are some modifiers (called **[:opts]** in the documentation below):

**:nord=#**will change the number of points in fitting polynomial to**#**(polynomial order is**#−1**). The default value is**#=4**.**:rat**will use a rational polynomial, rather than an ordinary one. Good for data with singularities.**:mesh**(applies to**−int**only) replaces*s*_{0}with its integral on the same mesh as the original set of values**x1**. A trapezoidal rule is used at present.

You can string the options together. These three unops are demonstrated in Example 2.4.

**−diff[:opts]**

differentiates columns 2…*nc*using column 1 as the abscissa*s*_{0}is returned as a table of points within the first column and the remaining columns replacing the function value at each*list***x1**with its (numeric) derivative.**−int[:opts] xlo***list*

integrates columns 2…*nc*using column 1 as the abscissa, from the lower bound**xlo**to a set of upper bounds, given by.*list*

*s*_{0}is returned as a table of points within the first column and the result of the integral in the remaining columns.*list***−intrp[:opts]***list*

interpolates column 2 to points in*list*, using column 1 as the abscissa.

*s*_{0}is returned as a table of points within the first column and the result of the interpolation in the remaining columns.*list***−smo width,xmin,xmax,dx:**

smooths vector of delta-functions with gaussians**−unx[:i1] #1,#2**

(uncross) exchanges points in columns #1 and #2 after their point of closest approach**−unx2[:i1] #1,#2**

(cross) exchanges points in columns #1 and #2 at their point of closest approach, if they do not cross.**−at[:i1] val***expr*

find adjacent rows that bracket*expr*=*val*. Array contains linearly interpolated**x1**and*expr*.**−ipoly=x**

Constructs a Lagrange interpolating polynomial from points in column 1.*s*_{0}must be an array with one column; the order of polynomial is the number of points. This switch returns weights to use at the given points in order to interpolate some object (e.g. a function or matrix) known at the given points to point**x**.

*Example:*`mc '-array[3,1]' 1/2,0,1 -ipoly=1/4 -t`

returns a three-element vector, 3/4, 3/8, -1/8. Applying these weights to a linear combination of some object known at points 1/2, 0, 1, will estimate the object at**x**=1/4, using a quadratic interpolation. Note that the sum of the weights must be unity.

See Instruction Summary.

#### Find numerical differences read from a pair of files with mixed text and numbers

**mcx** has a special mode, which you invoke with the command-line argument `-cmpf`

. It does not act on the stack but instead reads two files, comparing line by line, extracting words (i.e. strings separated by spaces) that appear to be floating point numbers, and numerically evaluating their difference.

Its default operation is to print out information about the file, such as:

`lines 1:29 cols 1:75 words 152 chars 1214 ndiff 3 max 10`

You can print print out a subset of this information (see ** printopt** below). This is intended for scripts that compare differences in the numerical values in two files.

Blank lines in either file are skipped over. There is no facility, such as with the **diff** command, to re-align lines where extra lines are present in only one file.

The syntax for this switch is:

```
-cmpf[~ln=..][~col=..][~sep=<i>c</i>][~quiet][~verb][~long][~char|~tol=#][<i>incl</i>][<i>excl</i>][<i>term</i>][<i>printopt</i>]~fn1=<i>f1</i>~fn2=<i>f2</i>|~diffy=#
```

The first character following `-cmpf`

is the delimiter separating tags (assumed here to be **~**). `~fn1`

and `~fn2`

are required; the rest are optional. Alternatively, **~diffy** may substitute for **~fn2**.

Their meaning is:

**~ln=#[,#2]**

Compare only the first**#**lines, or if**#2**is present, lines in the range (**#,#2**)**~col=#[,#2]**

Compare only the first**#**columns, or if**#2**is present, columns in the range (**#,#2**)**~sep=***c*

If a word contains character, it is split into separate words using*c*as the delimiter.*c*

Thus ifis “*c***=**”, the word**DQ=1e-6**is split into two words, the second being a number.**~quiet**

silent mode : prints out nothing but returns the number of differences to stdout (capped at 255)**~verb | ~vverb**

verbose mode: prints out information about each line. The latter is a very verbose mode: it also prints out the lines themselves.**~long**

compares longest of the two lines. The shorter line is filled with blanks. By default, lines are compared only up to the smaller number of words in the two lines.**~char**

a special mode that does no numerical conversions, but compares lines character by character**tol=#**

If the difference in numerical values of words converted into numbers is less than**#**, the two are treated as equal.*excl*

has the form**~excl=**. Tells*strn***mcx**to exclude lines containing. If*strn***~excl**appears more than once,**mcx**will exclude lines containing any of the associated strings.*incl*

has the form**~incl=**. Tells*strn***mcx**to compare only lines containing. If*strn***~incl**appears more than once,**mcx**will include lines containing any of the associated strings.*term*

has the form**~term=**. when*strn*is encountered in either file,*strn***mcx**terminates the comparison.*printopt*

changes**mcx**write a single number.should be one of:*printopt***~nchar**returns the total number of characters in the rows and columns read.**~nword**returns the number of words**~ndiff**returns the number of instances of numerical words found to be different, or if**~char**is present, the number of differences in characters**~max**returns the global maximum numerical difference encountered

**~fn1=***file1*

is the first file to be compared.*file1***~fn2=***file2*

is the second file to be compared.*file2***~diffy=#**

This may be used as an alternative to**~fn2=**. Then*file2*must contain side-by-side differences of two files generated by the unix*file1***diff**command. To create, run*file1***diff**on the two files to compare (call themand*filea*) as follows:*fileb*

`diff -W # [--suppress-common-lines] -y filea fileb | expand > file1`

Note that**#**is the width of the combined file. Use the same value when running**mcx**as`mcx -cmpf~fn1=file1~diffy=#...`

*Example:* Compare how **–help** differs between **lm** and **lmf**. Assuming **lm**, **lmf**, and **mcx** are in your path, do :

```
lm --help > file1
lmf --help > file2
mcx -cmpf~fn1=file1~fn2=file2~col=40~vverb
```

You should see the first 40 columns of the two outputs displayed line by line, a summary of the differences found for each line pair, and at the end a summary similar to:

```
lines 1:29 cols 1:40 words 99 chars 814 ndiff 3 max 10
```

#### Binary Operators

These operate on the top two matrices in the stack, *s*_{1} and *s*_{0}. *s*_{1} and *s*_{0} are popped from the stack, and the result of the binary operation is put into *s*_{0}.

Dimensions for *s*_{0} and *s*_{1} are not independent; for example if they are added they must have the same number of rows and columns.

**−tog**

Toggle*s*_{0}and*s*_{1}.**−+**

Add*s*_{1}+*s*_{0}**−−**

Add*s*_{1}−*s*_{0}**−x**

Multiply*s*_{1}×*s*_{0}**−xe**

Multiply*s*_{1}and*s*_{0}element by element**−de**

Divide*s*_{1}/*s*_{0}element by element**−x3**

Multiply*s*_{1}*s*_{0}are thou they are 3D arrays:*s*_{1}=*s*_{1}(n11,n21,n31)*s*_{0}=*s*_{0}(n10,n20,n30) where n10=nr(0)/n20,n20=nc(1),n30=nc(0); n11=n10,n21=nr(1)/n11,n31=n20 Result(i,j,k) = sum_m s1(i,j,m) s0(i,m,k) is condensed into 2D (nr(1),nc(0))**−gevl | −gevc**

Same as**−evl | −evc**, but for the generalized eigenvalue problem.*s*_{1}is the nonorthogonal matrix.**−orthos:**

Replace*s*_{0}with*s*_{1}^{-1/2}*s*_{0}*s*_{1}^{-1/2}**−ccat:**

Concatenate columns of*s*_{1}and*s*_{0}into a single array**−rcat:**

Concatenate rows of*s*_{1}and*s*_{0}into a single array**−cross:**

Cross product*s*_{1}(1,1..3) x*s*_{0}(:,1..3)**−suba[#] t,b,l,r | -suba[#] t,l**

Copy*s*_{1}to subblock of*s*_{0}. Conventions for subblock are the same as for**−suba t,b,l,r | -sub t,l**.

Optional # copies #×*s*_{1}into*s*_{0}.**−index:**

Use*s*_{0}as an row index to*s*_{1}.*s*_{0}(i) is overwritten by*s*_{1}(*s*_{0}(i)).*s*_{1}is preserved. New*s*_{0}has row dimensions of the original*s*_{0}and column dimensions of*s*_{1}.

### Repeated Iteration of Command Line Arguments

Command line arguments can be repeated by enclosing them in brackets, with the syntax

```
[ name=list arg1 arg2 arg3 ... argn ]
```

`list`

is a standard Questaal integer list.

**mcx** executes the sequence of command line arguments **arg1**, **arg2**, **arg3**, …, **argn** for each element in **list**. Within this special construct, **arg1**, **arg2**, … are treated as strings that are parsed for expression substitution. In particular, variables *name* and *i* are loaded and recalculated each pass. *name* is the value of the current integer, and *i* is the index in the list.

**name=** is not required; **mcx** will use **ir** as the loop variable if it is omitted.

The scheme is best explained by a concrete illustratation.

*Example 1:*

Suppose files *a0*, *a1* and *a4* reside on disk, with *a0* a 4×4 symmetrix matrix, *a1* 4×4 hermitian, and *a4* 1×3 real. The command

```
mcx [ k=0,1,4 'a{k}' ] -show
```

should get expanded to a sequence of four arguments

loopcounter i | k | argument | action | |

1 | 1 | 0 | a{k} | a0 loaded onto stack |

2 | 2 | 1 | a{k} | a1 loaded onto stack |

3 | 3 | 4 | a{k} | a4 loaded onto stack |

4 | - | - | -show | displays stack |

Note tha both loop counter **i** and loop variable **k** are remade each iteration.

You should see the following:

```
# 0 named arrays, 3 on stack; pending 0 unops 0 bops (vsn 1.058)
# stack nr nc cast
# 3 1 3 real
# 2 4 4 herm
# 1 4 4 symm
```

##### Conditional evaluation of an argument

Within the **[ … ]** construct, an argument that begins with **?** is treated as an expression. The result of that expression determines whether the subsequent argument should be evaluated or skipped. Thus the construct

```
mcx ... [ ... '?expr' argi ... ]
```

parses *expr* as an expression. If it evaluates nonzero, **argi** is executed. Otherwise, **argi** is passed over.

*Example 2:*

```
mcx [ 0:2 'a{ir}' '?i>1' -rcat ]
```

Pushes

*a0*on the stack (note that variable**ir**is used as default, since no name wsa spcified)Evaluates expression

`?i>1`

. In the first pass the loop counter is 1, so the expression evaluates to false and the next argument is ignored.Pushes

*a1*on the stackEvaluates expression

`?i>1`

, which now evaluates to true. The`-rcat`

argument is parsed, row-concatenating*a0*and*a1*leaving a single array on the stackPushes

*a2*on the stack, can row-concatenates it to the existing stack

The final stack consists of a single array which concatenates *a0*, … , *a2*.

##### Special handling of the last iteration

You can prevent the last argument (or arguments) in the loop from executing, by appending a **/** to the **[**. A single slash suppresses the last argument, two slashes suppress the last two arguments, and so on.

*Example 3:* cut and paste the 2×2 matrix in the box below to file *a*.

```
1 x
x x*x
```

Then do:

```
mcx [/ 1:3 '-vx={i}' a -+ ]
```

This sums three instances of *a* with *x*=1, *x*=2, and *x*=3. Note that three arrays are loaded but there are only two additions, so **−+** should be suppressed the last iteration.

You should see the following output:

```
% rows 2 cols 2 real
3.000000 6.000000
6.000000 14.000000
```

The (1,1) element is the sum of *x*^{0} for *x*=1…3, while (1,2) and (2,1) are the sum of *x*^{1} and (2,2) is the sum of *x*^{2}.

To see the arguments being parsed in detail, use the `-debug`

switch:

```
mcx -debug [/ 1:3 '-vx={i}' a -+ ]
```

##### Nested iterations of commands

The looping construct can be nested, as illustrated by the following example. It makes a 6×6 array from assembling 9 instances (3 rows and three columns) of a single 2×2 array, modifying each instance.

*Example 4:*

Use nested loops to make the following array

```
% rows 6 cols 6 real
14.00 12.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
13.00 11.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 24.00 22.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 23.00 21.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.00 32.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 33.00 31.00
```

The three diagonal 2×2 blocks are the array `[[4,3],[2,1]]`

, shifted respectively by 10, 20, 30. The following command makes this array:

```
mcx -f18f8.2 [ ix=1:3 [ jx=1:3 '-array[2,2]' 4,3,2,1 "-shft=jx*10" '?jx<>ix' -s0 ] ] '-sarray[3,3]'
```

Compare what happens when you load elements in reverse order, e.g. with `-sarrayz[3,3]`

, `-sarrayr[3,3]`

, `-sarrayc[3,3]`

.

*Example 5:* Given a pair of 32×32 arrays in files *A* and *B*, split each into four 16×16 subblocks, and create an interleaved 64×64 array of the form

In the following command, `-1:16 -s0 -a z`

creates a 16×16 array of zero value, named **z**. The two **-split** commands create four subblocks each of arrays **a** and **b**. Finally the 16 subblocks are pushed onto the stack in the order as they occur in the array, and assembled with `-sarray[4,4]`

.

```
mcx -f16f12.6 -1:16 -s0 -a z A -split a 1:nr+1:16 1:nc+1:16 -pop B -split b 1:nr+1:16 1:nc+1:16 -pop \
a11 z a12 z z b11 z b12 a21 z a22 z z b21 z b22 '-sarray[4,4]'
```

Return to Table of Contents.

### Instruction summary

This section summarizes available **mcx** instructions, with hyperlinks to the descriptions in the manual.

Switches that affect variables and formatting of data files that are read and written.

**−nc=# (nr=#)**

**−vvar=#**

**−show**

**−w[l=string] fname | −bw[l=string] fname**

**−wap**

**−a[**

*nr*=#|:*nc*=#] nam | −ap nam**−av[**

*ir*,*ic*] var**−r~switches**

**−px[:nprec]**

**−pxc**

Operators that act on the top level matrix and replace it with the result of the unary operator:

**−p** **−p+n** **−(-p-n)**

**−pop**

**−csum[:list]**

**−rsum[:list]**

**−s#**

**−shft=#**

**−sort expr**

**−i | − iq**

**−1:**

*n***−evl | −evc**

**−t**

**−cc**

**−herm**

**−real**

**−v2dia**

**−split nam row-markers column-markers**

**−rep:n1,n2**

**−roll:#1[,#2]**

**−pwr=#**

**−tp [nc~]**

*list***−rot=**

*strn***−roteu**

**−ylm~l=**

*l*[~sh|~sh2][~spin|~spin+o|~spin+oonly]**−array[#1,#2] #,#,#,…**

**−sarray[#1,#2] | −sarrayr[#1,#2] | −sarrayc[#1,#2] | −sarrayz[#1,#2]**

Row and column Unary Operators

Row and column manipulations of the top-level array

**−rowl list −rowl:mirr**

**−coll**

*list*−coll:mirr**−rowl:pf=**

*fnam*−coll:pf=*fnam*−rowl:ipf=*fnam*−coll:ipf=*fnam***−inc**

*expr***−sub t,b,l,r**

**−subs:# t,b,l,r**

**−subv:# t,b,l,r**

**−e#**

*expr1 expr2*…*expr*#Unary Operators treating data as discretized continuous functions of the first column

**−diff[:opts]**

**−int[:opts] xlo list**

**−intrp[:opts]**

*list***−smo width,xmin,xmax,dx**

**−abs**

**−max[:i|g]**

**−unx[:i1] #1,#2**

**−unx2[:i1] #1,#2**

**−at[:i1] val**

*expr***−nint[#1]**

Operator that replace the contents of the two matrices on the stack with the result of a binary operation. if they are added they must have the same number of rows and columns.

**−tog** **−+** **−−** **−x** **−xe** **−de**

**−x3**

**−gevl −gevc**

**−orthos**

**−ccat** **−rcat**

**−cross**

**−suba[#] t,b,l,r -suba[#] t,l**

**−index**

Use **-cmpf** to compare numbers between two files with mixed text and numbers.

Repeated Iteration of Command Line Arguments

Loop over arguments inside [ .. ]

Return to Table of Contents.

### Other resources

The source code to **mcx** can be found in the bitbucket repository.